Aug 02, · Although a computer can run with no storage device, it would only be able to view information, unless it was connected to another computer that had storage capabilities. Even a task, such as browsing the Internet, requires information to be stored on your computer. Information technology (IT) is the use of any computers, storage, networking and other physical devices, infrastructure and processes to create, process, .
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We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow freedatingloves.com more. The Protection of Information in Computer Systems JEROME H. SALTZER, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE, AND MICHAEL D. SCHROEDER, MEMBER, IEEE Invited Paper. Abstract - This tutorial paper explores the mechanics of protecting computer-stored information from unauthorized use or modification. It concentrates on those architectural structures--whether hardware or software--that are . intercept, monitor, or decrypt the information, as the case may be; or (c) provide information stored in computer resource. (4) The subscriber or intermediary or any person who fails to assist the agency referred to in sub-section (3) shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to fine.].
Information security , sometimes shortened to infosec , is the practice of protecting information by mitigating information risks. It is part of information risk management. Protected information may take any form, e. Information security's primary focus is the balanced protection of the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data also known as the CIA triad while maintaining a focus on efficient policy implementation, all without hampering organization productivity.
This is largely achieved through a structured risk management process that involves:. To standardize this discipline, academics and professionals collaborate to offer guidance, policies, and industry standards on password , antivirus software , firewall , encryption software , legal liability , security awareness and training, and so forth. This standardization may be further driven by a wide variety of laws and regulations that affect how data is accessed, processed, stored, transferred and destroyed.
However, the implementation of any standards and guidance within an entity may have limited effect if a culture of continual improvement isn't adopted.
Various definitions of information security are suggested below, summarized from different sources:. At the core of information security is information assurance, the act of maintaining the confidentiality, integrity, and availability CIA of information, ensuring that information is not compromised in any way when critical issues arise.
While paper-based business operations are still prevalent, requiring their own set of information security practices, enterprise digital initiatives are increasingly being emphasized,   with information assurance now typically being dealt with by information technology IT security specialists.
These specialists apply information security to technology most often some form of computer system. It is worthwhile to note that a computer does not necessarily mean a home desktop. A computer is any device with a processor and some memory. Such devices can range from non-networked standalone devices as simple as calculators, to networked mobile computing devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. They are responsible for keeping all of the technology within the company secure from malicious cyber attacks that often attempt to acquire critical private information or gain control of the internal systems.
The field of information security has grown and evolved significantly in recent years. It offers many areas for specialization, including securing networks and allied infrastructure , securing applications and databases , security testing , information systems auditing , business continuity planning , electronic record discovery, and digital forensics.
Information security professionals are very stable in their employment. As of [update] more than 80 percent of professionals had no change in employer or employment over a period of a year, and the number of professionals is projected to continuously grow more than 11 percent annually from to Information security threats come in many different forms.
Some of the most common threats today are software attacks, theft of intellectual property, theft of identity, theft of equipment or information, sabotage, and information extortion. Most people have experienced software attacks of some sort. Viruses ,  worms , phishing attacks , and Trojan horses are a few common examples of software attacks. The theft of intellectual property has also been an extensive issue for many businesses in the information technology IT field.
Identity theft is the attempt to act as someone else usually to obtain that person's personal information or to take advantage of their access to vital information through social engineering. Theft of equipment or information is becoming more prevalent today due to the fact that most devices today are mobile,  are prone to theft and have also become far more desirable as the amount of data capacity increases. Sabotage usually consists of the destruction of an organization's website in an attempt to cause loss of confidence on the part of its customers.
Information extortion consists of theft of a company's property or information as an attempt to receive a payment in exchange for returning the information or property back to its owner, as with ransomware.
There are many ways to help protect yourself from some of these attacks but one of the most functional precautions is conduct periodical user awareness. The number one threat to any organisation are users or internal employees, they are also called insider threats. Governments , military , corporations , financial institutions , hospitals , non-profit organisations, and private businesses amass a great deal of confidential information about their employees, customers, products, research, and financial status.
Should confidential information about a business' customers or finances or new product line fall into the hands of a competitor or a black hat hacker , a business and its customers could suffer widespread, irreparable financial loss, as well as damage to the company's reputation.
From a business perspective, information security must be balanced against cost; the Gordon-Loeb Model provides a mathematical economic approach for addressing this concern. For the individual, information security has a significant effect on privacy , which is viewed very differently in various cultures.
Possible responses to a security threat or risk are: . Since the early days of communication, diplomats and military commanders understood that it was necessary to provide some mechanism to protect the confidentiality of correspondence and to have some means of detecting tampering.
Julius Caesar is credited with the invention of the Caesar cipher c. However, for the most part protection was achieved through the application of procedural handling controls. As postal services expanded, governments created official organizations to intercept, decipher, read, and reseal letters e. In the mid-nineteenth century more complex classification systems were developed to allow governments to manage their information according to the degree of sensitivity.
For example, the British Government codified this, to some extent, with the publication of the Official Secrets Act in A public interest defense was soon added to defend disclosures in the interest of the state. A newer version was passed in that extended to all matters of confidential or secret information for governance. By the time of the First World War , multi-tier classification systems were used to communicate information to and from various fronts, which encouraged greater use of code making and breaking sections in diplomatic and military headquarters.
Encoding became more sophisticated between the wars as machines were employed to scramble and unscramble information. The volume of information shared by the Allied countries during the Second World War necessitated formal alignment of classification systems and procedural controls. An arcane range of markings evolved to indicate who could handle documents usually officers rather than enlisted troops and where they should be stored as increasingly complex safes and storage facilities were developed.
The Enigma Machine , which was employed by the Germans to encrypt the data of warfare and was successfully decrypted by Alan Turing , can be regarded as a striking example of creating and using secured information. The end of the twentieth century and the early years of the twenty-first century saw rapid advancements in telecommunications , computing hardware and software , and data encryption.
The availability of smaller, more powerful, and less expensive computing equipment made electronic data processing within the reach of small business and home users. The rapid growth and widespread use of electronic data processing and electronic business conducted through the internet, along with numerous occurrences of international terrorism , fueled the need for better methods of protecting the computers and the information they store, process, and transmit.
The CIA triad of confidentiality, integrity, and availability is at the heart of information security. However, debate continues about whether or not this CIA triad is sufficient to address rapidly changing technology and business requirements, with recommendations to consider expanding on the intersections between availability and confidentiality, as well as the relationship between security and privacy.
The triad seems to have first been mentioned in a NIST publication in In and revised in , the OECD 's Guidelines for the Security of Information Systems and Networks  proposed the nine generally accepted principles: awareness , responsibility, response, ethics, democracy, risk assessment, security design and implementation, security management, and reassessment.
From each of these derived guidelines and practices. In , Donn Parker proposed an alternative model for the classic CIA triad that he called the six atomic elements of information. The elements are confidentiality , possession , integrity , authenticity , availability , and utility. The merits of the Parkerian Hexad are a subject of debate amongst security professionals. In information security, confidentiality "is the property, that information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized individuals, entities, or processes.
Rather, confidentiality is a component of privacy that implements to protect our data from unauthorized viewers. Examples of confidentiality of electronic data being compromised include laptop theft, password theft, or sensitive emails being sent to the incorrect individuals. In IT security, data integrity means maintaining and assuring the accuracy and completeness of data over its entire lifecycle. This is not the same thing as referential integrity in databases , although it can be viewed as a special case of consistency as understood in the classic ACID model of transaction processing.
Information security systems typically incorporate controls to ensure their own integrity, in particular protecting the kernel or core functions against both deliberate and accidental threats. Multi-purpose and multi-user computer systems aim to compartmentalize the data and processing such that no user or process can adversely impact another: the controls may not succeed however, as we see in incidents such as malware infections, hacks, data theft, fraud, and privacy breaches.
As such it touches on aspects such as credibility, consistency, truthfulness, completeness, accuracy, timeliness, and assurance. For any information system to serve its purpose, the information must be available when it is needed. This means the computing systems used to store and process the information, the security controls used to protect it, and the communication channels used to access it must be functioning correctly. High availability systems aim to remain available at all times, preventing service disruptions due to power outages, hardware failures, and system upgrades.
Ensuring availability also involves preventing denial-of-service attacks , such as a flood of incoming messages to the target system, essentially forcing it to shut down. In the realm of information security, availability can often be viewed as one of the most important parts of a successful information security program. Ultimately end-users need to be able to perform job functions; by ensuring availability an organization is able to perform to the standards that an organization's stakeholders expect.
This can involve topics such as proxy configurations, outside web access, the ability to access shared drives and the ability to send emails. A successful information security team involves many different key roles to mesh and align for the CIA triad to be provided effectively. In law, non-repudiation implies one's intention to fulfill their obligations to a contract.
It also implies that one party of a transaction cannot deny having received a transaction, nor can the other party deny having sent a transaction. It is important to note that while technology such as cryptographic systems can assist in non-repudiation efforts, the concept is at its core a legal concept transcending the realm of technology. It is not, for instance, sufficient to show that the message matches a digital signature signed with the sender's private key, and thus only the sender could have sent the message, and nobody else could have altered it in transit data integrity.
The alleged sender could in return demonstrate that the digital signature algorithm is vulnerable or flawed, or allege or prove that his signing key has been compromised. The fault for these violations may or may not lie with the sender, and such assertions may or may not relieve the sender of liability, but the assertion would invalidate the claim that the signature necessarily proves authenticity and integrity. As such, the sender may repudiate the message because authenticity and integrity are pre-requisites for non-repudiation.
Broadly speaking, risk is the likelihood that something bad will happen that causes harm to an informational asset or the loss of the asset. A vulnerability is a weakness that could be used to endanger or cause harm to an informational asset. A threat is anything man-made or act of nature that has the potential to cause harm.
The likelihood that a threat will use a vulnerability to cause harm creates a risk. When a threat does use a vulnerability to inflict harm, it has an impact. In the context of information security, the impact is a loss of availability, integrity, and confidentiality, and possibly other losses lost income, loss of life, loss of real property.
The Certified Information Systems Auditor CISA Review Manual defines risk management as "the process of identifying vulnerabilities and threats to the information resources used by an organization in achieving business objectives, and deciding what countermeasures , if any, to take in reducing risk to an acceptable level, based on the value of the information resource to the organization.
There are two things in this definition that may need some clarification. First, the process of risk management is an ongoing, iterative process. It must be repeated indefinitely. The business environment is constantly changing and new threats and vulnerabilities emerge every day. Second, the choice of countermeasures controls used to manage risks must strike a balance between productivity, cost, effectiveness of the countermeasure, and the value of the informational asset being protected.
Furthermore, these processes have limitations as security breaches are generally rare and emerge in a specific context which may not be easily duplicated. Thus, any process and countermeasure should itself be evaluated for vulnerabilities. The remaining risk is called "residual risk. A risk assessment is carried out by a team of people who have knowledge of specific areas of the business.