What does ‘RSPCA’ stand for?
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Nov 09, · ‘RSPCA’ stands for the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. This name is registered in each State and Territory in Australia by the respective organisations, e.g. RSPCA New South Wales, RSPCA Victoria, RSPCA ACT. The registered name of the RSPCA’s federal body is RSPCA Australia.
Its patron is Queen Elizabeth II. Founded in , it is the oldest and largest animal welfare organisation in the world  and is one of the largest charities in the UK. The emergence of the RSPCA has its roots in the intellectual climate of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century in Britain where opposing views were exchanged in print concerning the use of animals.
The harsh use and maltreatment of animals in hauling carriages, scientific experiments including vivisection , and cultural amusements of fox-hunting , bull-baiting and cock fighting were among some of the matters that were debated by social reformers, clergy, and parliamentarians. Martin's Act was supported by various social reformers who were not parliamentarians, and the efforts of the Reverend Arthur Broome — to create a voluntary organisation to promote kindness toward animals resulted in the founding of an informal network.
Broome canvassed opinions in letters that were published or summarised in various periodicals in George Bonner, Rev. Broome was appointed as the society's first honorary secretary. The society was the first animal welfare charity to be founded in the world. The accrued debts led to a suspension of operations when Broome as the society's guarantor for debts was imprisoned.
The permanent appointment of a salaried inspector was settled in , and the inspector is the image best known of the organisation today. Broome's experience of bankruptcy and prison created difficulties for him afterwards and he stood aside as the society's first secretary in and was succeeded by the co-founding member Lewis Gompertz.
Alongside the society's early efforts to prosecute offenders who maltreated animals, there were efforts made to promote kindly attitudes toward animals through the publication of books and tracts as well as the fostering of annual sermons preached against cruelty on behalf of the society. The first annual anti-cruelty sermon that was preached on behalf of the society was delivered by Rev Dr Rudge in March at the Whitechapel Church.
Arthur Penryhn Stanley — , the Dean of Westminster. The RSPCA also had annual accounts published in newspapers, like The Londoner , where the secretary would discuss improvements, report cases, and remind the public to watch over their animals' health.
During the second half of the society sponsored an essay-writing competition with a benefactor offering a prize of one hundred pounds for the winning entry. The terms of the competition stipulated:. There were thirty-four essays submitted and in December the prize was awarded to the Congregational minister Rev John Styles.
The role of women in the society began shortly after the organisation was founded. At the society's first annual meeting in , which was held at the Crown and Anchor Tavern on 29 June , the public notice that announced the gathering specifically included appropriate accommodation for the presence of women members.
In the nineteenth century the RSPCA fostered international relations on the problem of cruelty through the sponsoring of conferences and in providing basic advice on the establishment of similar welfare bodies in North America and in the colonies of the British Empire.
There was a public groundswell of opinions that were divided into opposing factions concerning vivisection, where Charles Darwin — campaigned on behalf of scientists to conduct experiments on animals while others, such as Frances Power Cobbe — formed an anti-vivisection lobby. Since that time the RSPCA has continued to play an active role, both in the creation of animal welfare legislation and in its enforcement.
An important recent new law has been the Animal Welfare Act During the First World War the RSPCA provided support for the Army Veterinary Corps in treating animals such as donkeys, horses, dogs and birds that were co-opted into military service as beasts of burden, messengers and so forth. The RSPCA's centenary in and its one hundred and fiftieth anniversary in were accompanied by books telling the society's story.
In the society owned four animal hospitals, Birmingham , Greater Manchester , Putney south London and the Harmsworth Memorial Hospital in Finsbury Park north London ,  and a number of clinics which provide treatments to those who could not otherwise afford it, neuter animals and accept animals from the RSPCA inspectorate. RSPCA animal centres deal with a wide range of injured and rescued animals, working alongside its inspectorate, volunteers, and others to ensure that each animal is found a new home.
In the society had four wildlife centres at East Winch Norfolk , West Hatch Somerset , Stapeley Grange Cheshire and Mallydams Wood East Sussex , which provide treatment to sick, injured and orphaned wild animals to maximise their chances of a successful return to the wild.
At the national level, there is a 'National Control Centre', which receives all calls from members of the public, and tasks local Inspectors, some information AWOs or ACOs to respond to urgent calls.
The Regional Managers are expected to have a broad understanding of operations throughout their regions. Branches are separately registered charities operating at a local level and are run by volunteers. Some RSPCA branches are self-funding and raise money locally to support the animal welfare work they do. RSPCA branches also offer advice, microchipping, neutering and subsidised animal treatments.
A Group is headed by a Chief Inspector. There are also a small number of Market Inspectors across the country. The RSPCA states that its mission as a charity is, by all lawful means, to prevent cruelty, promote kindness and to alleviate the suffering of animals. RSPCA inspectors respond to calls from the public to investigate alleged mistreatment of animals. They offer advice and assistance to improve animal welfare, and in some cases prosecute under laws such as the Animal Welfare Act The RSPCA brings private prosecution a right available to any civilian against those it believes, based on independent veterinary opinion, have caused neglect to an animal under laws such as the Animal Welfare Act The society has its own legal department and veterinary surgeons amongst the resources which facilitate such private prosecutions.
All prosecutions are brought via independent solicitors acting for the RSPCA, as the association has no legal enforcement powers or authority in its own right. In when the first recognisable police force was established in England,   they adopted a similar uniform to that of RSPCA inspectors who had been wearing uniforms since the charity's beginning in This adoption has led to similarities in the RSPCA rank names and rank insignia with British police ranks , which has led some critics such as Chris Newman, chairman of the Federation of Companion Animal Societies  to suggest an attempt to "adopt" police powers in the public imagination.
An RSPCA inspector may also verbally caution a member of the public, similar to that used by the police, i. But it may harm your defence if you do not mention when questioned something which you later rely on in court.
Anything you do say may be given in evidence" ; this may strengthen the perception that the RSPCA has statutory powers. People do believe they have powers of entry";  however, he did not produce any evidence of such impersonation of police officers, and the society strongly deny the charge of impersonation. Sally Case, former head of prosecutions, insisted that RSPCA inspectors are trained specifically to make clear to pet-owners that they have no such right. They act without an owner's permission, she says, "only if an animal is suffering in a dire emergency.
If the court feels evidence has been wrongly obtained, it can refuse to admit it". One recent trial was halted and charges relating to nine dogs were thrown out of court after District Judge Elsey ruled that they had been wrongly seized and that the police and RSPCA acted unlawfully when they entered private property and seized the animals.
Like any other person or organisation that the law deems to have a duty to investigate — such as HM Revenue and Customs and Local Authority Trading Standards — the RSPCA is expected to conform to the rules in the Police and Criminal Evidence Act so far as they relate to matters of investigation. RSPCA officers are trained to state, following giving the caution, that the person is "not under arrest and can leave at any time".
The Animal Welfare Act  has now replaced the Protection of Animals Act , and it empowers the police and an inspector appointed by a local authority. In cases where, for example, access to premises without the owner's consent is sought, a local authority or Animal Health inspector or police officer may be accompanied by an RSPCA inspector if he or she is invited to do so, as was the case in previous law.
Although RSPCA workers do not have direct access to the PNC, information is shared with them by the various police constabularies which would reveal any convictions, cautions, warnings, reprimands and impending prosecutions. Information regarding motor vehicles can also be accessed. The Association of Chief Police Officers released a statement clarifying that the RSPCA had no direct access to the PNC, and that in common with other prosecuting bodies, it may make a request for disclosure of records.
This indirect access does not include any information that the RSPCA does not need in order to prosecute a case at court. The RSPCA has long been criticised for its governance with the Charity Commission describing its governance as below the standard expected of a large charity and in August issued the Society with an official warning.
The RSPCA also introduced term limits of nine years for its trustees and appointed its first independent Chair, Rene Olivieri, in its years of history. The RSPCA is an opponent of badger culling ; in there was controversy about a "political" campaign against culling, with the Charity Commission being asked to consider claims that the charity had breached guidelines by being too overtly 'political'.
The charity responded saying that it took "careful account of charity law and the guidance issued by the Charity Commission". We want to vaccinate them — and save their lives. The advertising standards watchdog judged that the advert was likely to mislead the general public who had not taken an active interest in the badger cull saying, "The ad must not appear again in its current form.
We told the RSPCA not to use language that implied the whole badger population in the cull areas would be culled in future advertising. In response the chairman Mike Tomlinson said "The trustee body continues to place its full support behind the RSPCA's chief executive, management and all our people who do such outstanding work". The accusations of politicization remain unsubstantiated. Paul Draycott also warned that the RSPCA fears an exodus of "disillusioned staff" with "poor or even non-existent management training and career paths" for employees.
In response the RSPCA's chief executive, Gavin Grant denied suggestions in the memo that there was "no strategy" in some areas, stating that there was no difficulty in attracting trustees or serious internal concerns about management. The comments were condemned by countryside campaigners and Jewish groups. In the new head of the RSPCA, Jeremy Cooper, made a dramatic, public apology for the charity's past mistakes and vowed to be less political and bring fewer prosecutions in the future.
CEO Jeremy Cooper later resigned after just on year in charge. In April the RSPCA has faced a new fraud investigation held at south-east London branch over the alleged mishandling of funds by two men, who were arrested on suspicion of fraud.
The suspected fraud was exposed during a financial audit of the south-east London branch. The RSPCA also state that whilst a few of their own branches operate "no kill" policies themselves,  its policy on euthanasia is:. Currently the RSPCA accepts, with great reluctance that in certain circumstances euthanasia may be necessary, when the animal is not rehomable, because it is sick or injured, for behavioural reasons or occasionally because there are no appropriate homes available and the animal would therefore endure long-term suffering through deprivation of basic needs.
On 13 December , the RSPCA admitted culpability, apologised for the euthanising of the cow, and donated a pregnant cow to the temple as a symbol of reconciliation. In one particular case 12 horses from a Lancashire farm that had been assessed by vets as being "bright, alert and responsive" and suffering no life-threatening issues were killed by the RSPCA.
There have been thousands of lawyers taking defence cases against the RSPCA and they have only ever made a complaint about one. In November the RSPCA was accused of instigating police raids on small animal shelters with insufficient evidence that animals were being mistreated.
The owners claimed that they were being persecuted because of their "no kill" policy of only putting animals down if they cannot be effectively treated. In a statement, the RSPCA said it went "to great lengths" to ensure wherever possible that adverts were not distributed outside England and Wales , and "Every piece of printed literature, television advertising and internet banner advertising always features the wording 'The RSPCA is a charity registered in England and Wales ' ".
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the British charity. For other organisations with similar names, see Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Southwater , England, UK. This section may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings. Please discuss this issue on the article's talk page. December Archived from the original on 2 March Retrieved 29 February Retrieved 22 November ".
Archived from the original on 8 July Retrieved 16 August Also see The Monthly Magazine Vol.