What is Geography?
Geographer definition, a person who specializes in geographical research, delineation, and study. See more. Definition of geographer: a specialist in geography Examples of geographer in a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web Michel Carmona, a historian and geographer specializing in Paris, said that the cultural erosion of the Latin Quarter started in the s and was intertwined with the .
Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities —not merely where objects are, but also how they have changed and come to be. Geography is often defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography.
Human geography is concerned with the study of people and their communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography is concerned with the study of processes how to set the date on a armitron watch patterns in the natural environment like the atmospherehydrospherebiosphereand geosphere. The four historical traditions in geographical research are spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, and the Earth sciences.
Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences ". Geography is a systematic study of the Universe and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with how to attract the attention of a guy and place names.
Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartologythis is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, processes, and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns.
Names of places To know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena alike of the natural and of the political world, in so far as it treats of the latterto compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man.
This is 'a description of the world'—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect. Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they also exist in space and have a geography.
Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography. Physical geography or physiography focuses on geography as an Earth science.
It aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithospherehydrosphereatmospherepedosphereand global flora and fauna patterns biosphere. Physical geography is the study of earth's seasonsclimateatmospheresoilstreams, landforms, and oceans. Environmental what is yard management system. Human geography or anthropogeography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society.
It encompasses the humanpoliticalculturalsocialand economic aspects. Political geog. Religion geography. Transportation geography. Integrated geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world.
Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between human and physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Since the changing of the human relationship with the environment as a result of globalization and technological changea new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship.
Examples of areas of research in environmental geography include: emergency managementenvironmental managementsustainabilityand political ecology. Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography. Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mids.
Today, geomatics methods include spatial analysisgeographic information systems GISremote sensingand global positioning systems GPS. Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments, what is brian mcfadden doing now in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the s. A branch which is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of the earth's surface, resulting in each area from the combination of its complete natural or elements, as of physical and human environment.
Attention is paid also to regionalizationwhich covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions. As spatial interrelationships are key to this synoptic science, maps are a key tool. Classical cartography has been joined by a more modern approach to geographical analysis, computer-based geographic information systems GIS. Cartography studies the representation of the Earth's surface with abstract symbols map making. Although other subdisciplines of geography rely on maps for presenting their analyses, the actual making of maps is abstract enough to be regarded separately.
Cartography has grown from a collection of drafting techniques into an actual science. Cartographers must learn cognitive psychology and ergonomics to understand which symbols convey information about the Earth most effectively, and behavioural psychology to induce the readers of their maps to act on the information.
They must learn geodesy and fairly advanced mathematics to understand how the shape of the Earth affects the distortion of map symbols projected onto a flat surface for viewing.
It can be said, without much controversy, that cartography is the seed from which the larger field of geography grew. Most geographers will cite a childhood fascination with maps as an early sign they would end up in the field. Geographic information systems GIS deal with the storage of information about the Earth for automatic retrieval by a computer, in an accurate manner appropriate to the information's purpose.
In addition to all of the other subdisciplines of geography, GIS specialists must understand computer science and database systems. GIS has revolutionized the field of cartography: nearly all mapmaking is now done with the assistance of some form of GIS software. In this context, GIS stands for geographic information science.
Remote sensing is the science of obtaining information about Earth features from measurements made at a distance. Remotely sensed data comes in many forms, such as satellite imageryaerial photographyand data obtained from hand-held sensors. Remotely sensed data may be analysed either independently of, or in conjunction with other digital data layers e. Geostatistics deal with quantitative data analysis, specifically the application of statistical methodology to the exploration of geographic phenomena.
Geostatistics is used extensively in a variety of fields, including hydrologygeologypetroleum exploration, weather analysis, urban planninglogisticsand epidemiology. The mathematical basis for geostatistics derives from cluster analysislinear discriminant analysis and non-parametric statistical testsand a variety what is withholding tax rate in nigeria other subjects.
Applications of geostatistics rely heavily on geographic information systemsparticularly for the interpolation estimate of unmeasured points. Geographers are making notable contributions to the method of quantitative techniques.
Geographic qualitative methods, or ethnographical research techniques, are used by human geographers. In cultural geography there is a tradition of employing qualitative research techniques, also used in anthropology and sociology. Participant observation and in-depth interviews provide human geographers with qualitative data. The oldest known world maps date back to ancient Babylon from the 9th century BC.
The accompanying text mentions seven outer regions beyond the encircling ocean. The descriptions of five of them have survived. The ideas of Anaximander c. The foundations of geography can be traced to the ancient cultures, such as the ancient, medieval, and early modern Chinese. The Greekswho how to read ecg video the first to explore geography as both art and scienceachieved this through CartographyPhilosophyand Literatureor through Mathematics.
What is a geographer definition is some debate about who was the first person to assert that the Earth is spherical in shape, with the credit going either to Parmenides or Pythagoras. Anaxagoras was able to demonstrate that the profile of the Earth was circular by explaining eclipses. However, how to throw a hook in bowling video still believed that the Earth was a flat disk, as did many of his contemporaries.
One of the first estimates of the radius of the Earth was made by Eratosthenes. The first rigorous system of latitude and longitude lines is credited to Hipparchus.
He employed a sexagesimal system that was derived from Babylonian mathematics. To measure the longitude at different locations on Earth, he suggested using eclipses to determine the relative difference in time. He extended the work of Hipparchususing a grid system on his maps and adopting a length of From the 3rd century onwards, Chinese methods of geographical study and writing of geographical literature became much more comprehensive than what was found in Europe at the time until the 13th century.
During the Middle Agesthe fall of the Roman empire led to a shift in the evolution of geography from Europe to the Islamic world. Turkish geographer, Mahmud al-Kashgari drew a world map on a linguistic basis, and later so did Piri Reis Piri Reis map.
Further, Islamic scholars translated and interpreted the earlier works of the Romans and the Greeks and established the House of Wisdom in Baghdad for this purpose.
Abu Rayhan Biruni — first described a polar equi- azimuthal equidistant projection of the celestial sphere. He often combined astronomical readings and mathematical equations, in order to develop methods of pin-pointing locations by recording degrees of latitude and longitude.
He also developed similar techniques when it came to measuring the heights of mountainsdepths of the valleysand expanse of the horizon. He also discussed human geography and the planetary habitability of the Earth.
He also calculated the latitude of Kath, Khwarezmusing the maximum altitude of the Sun, and solved a complex geodesic equation in order to accurately compute the Earth's circumferencewhich was close to modern values of the Earth's circumference. In contrast to his predecessors, who measured the Earth's circumference by sighting the Sun simultaneously from two different locations, al-Biruni developed a new method of using trigonometric calculations, based on the angle between a plain and mountain top, which yielded more accurate measurements of the Earth's circumference, and made it possible for it to be measured by a single person from a single location.
The European Age of Discovery during the 16th and the 17th centuries, where many new lands were discovered what is a biosimilar drug accounts by European explorers such as Christopher ColumbusMarco Poloand James Cook revived a desire for both accurate geographic detail, and more solid theoretical foundations in Europe. The problem facing both explorers and geographers was finding the latitude and longitude of a geographic location.
The problem of latitude was solved long ago but that of longitude remained; agreeing on what zero meridian should be was only part of the problem. It was left to John Harrison to solve it by inventing the chronometer H-4 inand later in for the International Meridian Conference to adopt by convention the Greenwich meridian as zero meridian. The 18th and the 19th centuries were the times when geography became recognized as a discrete academic disciplineand became part of a typical university curriculum in Europe especially Paris and Berlin.
Over the past two centuries, the advancements in technology with computers have led to the development of geomatics and new practices such as participant observation and geostatistics being incorporated into geography's portfolio of tools. In the West during the 20th century, the discipline of geography went through four major phases: environmental determinismregional geographythe quantitative revolutionand critical geography.
The strong interdisciplinary links between geography and the sciences of geology and botanyas well as economicssociology and demographics have also grown greatly, especially as a result of earth system science that seeks to understand the world in a holistic view.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Science that studies the lands, the features, the inhabitants and the phenomena of the Earth.
This article is about the science of the surfaces of planetary bodies. For the science of planetary material, see Geology. For other uses, see Geography disambiguation and Geo. This article needs additional citations for verification.
A Basic Overview of the Discipline of Geography
geographer - an expert on geography expert - a person with special knowledge or ability who performs skillfully cartographer, map maker - a person who makes maps. A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society. Although geographers are historically known as people who make maps, map making is actually the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography. Geographer definition: A geographer is a person who studies geography or is an expert in it. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples.
Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments. They also examine how human culture interacts with the natural environment and the way that locations and places can have an impact on people. Geography seeks to understand where things are found, why they are there, and how they develop and change over time. Read More Browse our reference library for information about geography terms you should know.
What can you do with a background in geography? Browse examples of awesome geographers and why they love their careers! Navigate iconic National Geographic maps with new interactive features. Use tools for creating custom materials that can be easily printed and shared. Join your state's geography education alliance for professional development opportunities and more.
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Global Closet Calculator. Geography of a Pencil. The Global Network. Geography on the Job What can you do with a background in geography? Geography on the Job. Featured Geographer Profiles. Career Profiles. Mapping Navigate iconic National Geographic maps with new interactive features. Network of Alliances Join Us! Network of Alliances for Geographic Education Join your state's geography education alliance for professional development opportunities and more.