How Do You Know Who Is Considered Part of Your Household?
Oct 01, · Chapter 1: Housing History and Purpose. “Safe, affordable housing is a basic necessity for every family. Without a decent place to live, people cannot be productive members of society, children cannot learn and families cannot thrive.”. The term “shelter,” which is often used to define housing, has a strong connection to the ultimate. Jun 15, · The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social, microeconomic and government models, and is important to economics and inheritance. Household models include families, blended families, shared housing, group homes, boarding houses, houses of multiple occupancy (UK), and single room occupancy (US).
Without a decent place to live, people cannot be productive members of society, children cannot learn and families cannot thrive. The mental image of a shelter is of a safe, secure place that provides both privacy and protection from the elements and the temperature extremes of the outside world. This vision of shelter, however, is complex.
The earthquake in Bam, Iran, before dawn on December 26,killed in excess of 30, people, most of whom were sleeping in their homes. Although the homes were made of the most simple construction materials, many were well over a thousand years old. Living in a home where generation after generation had been raised should provide an enormous sense of security. Nevertheless, the world press has repeatedly implied that the construction of these homes destined this disaster.
The homes in Iran were constructed of sun-dried mud-brick and mud. We should think of our homes as a legacy to future generations and consider the what type of cleats for field hockey environmental effects of building them to serve only one or two generations before razing or reconstructing them.
Homes should be built for sustainability and for ease in future modification. We need to learn the lessons of the earthquake in Iran, as well as the heat wave in France that killed in excess of 15, people because of the lack of climate control systems in their homes.
We must use our experience, history, and knowledge of both engineering and human health needs to construct housing that meets the need for privacy, comfort, recreation, and health maintenance.
Health, home construction, and home maintenance are inseparable because of their overlapping goals. Many highly trained individuals must work together to achieve quality, safe, and healthy housing. Contractors, builders, code inspectors, housing inspectors, environmental health officers, injury control specialists, and epidemiologists all are indispensable to achieving the goal of the best housing in the world for U.
This goal is the basis for the collaboration of the U. Preurban Housing Early dwelling designs were probably the result of cultural, socioeconomic, and physical forces intrinsic to the environment of their inhabitants. The housing similarities among civilizations separated by vast distances may have been a result of a shared heritage, common influences, or chance.
Caves were accepted as dwellings, perhaps because they were ready made and required little or no construction. However, in areas with no caves, simple shelters were constructed and adapted to the availability of resources and the needs of the population. Classification systems have been developed to demonstrate how dwelling types evolved in preurban indigenous settings [ 1 ].
Ephemeral Dwellings Ephemeral dwellings, also known as transient dwellings, were typical of nomadic peoples. Habitation of an ephemeral dwelling is generally a matter of days. Episodic Dwellings Episodic housing is exemplified by the Inuit igloo, the tents of the Tungus of eastern Siberia, and the very similar tents of the Lapps of northern Europe.
These groups are more sophisticated than those living in ephemeral dwellings, tend to be more skilled in hunting or fishing, inhabit a dwelling for a period of weeks, and have a greater effect on the environment. These groups also construct communal housing and often practice slash-and-burn cultivation, which is the least productive use of cropland and has a greater environmental impact than the hunting and gathering of ephemeral dwellers.
Periodic Dwellings Periodic dwellings are also defined as regular temporary what level do pokemon evolve in black used by nomadic tribal societies living in a pastoral economy. This type of housing is reflected in the yurt used by the Mongolian how to draw architectural house plans Kirgizian groups and the Bedouins of North Africa and western Asia.
Pastoral nomads are distinguished from people living in episodic dwellings by their homogenous cultures and the beginnings of political organization.
Their environmental impact increases with their increased dependence on agriculture rather than livestock. Seasonal Dwellings Schoenauer [ 1 ] describes seasonal dwellings as reflective of societies that are tribal in nature, seminomadic, and based on agricultural pursuits that are both pastoral and marginal.
Housing used by seminomads for several months or for a season can be considered semisedentary and reflective of the advancement of the concept of property, which is lacking in the preceding societies. This concept of property is primarily of communal what is the primary purpose of household services, as opposed to individual or personal property. This type of housing is found in diverse environmental conditions and is demonstrated in North America by the hogans and armadas of the Navajo Indians.
Semipermanent Dwellings According to Schoenauer [ 1 ]sedentary folk societies or hoe peasants practicing subsistence agriculture by cultivating staple crops use semipermanent dwellings. These groups tend to live in their dwellings various amounts of time, usually years, as defined by their crop yields. When land needs to lie fallow, they move to more fertile areas.
Groups in the Americas that used semipermanent dwellings included the Mayans with their oval houses and the Hopi, Zuni, and Acoma Indians in the southwestern United States with their pueblos.
Permanent Dwellings The homes of sedentary agricultural societies, whose political and social organizations are defined as nations and who possess surplus agricultural products, exemplify this type of dwelling.
Surplus agricultural products allowed the division of labor and the introduction of other pursuits aside from food production; however, agriculture is still the primary occupation for a significant portion of the what are carbon film fossils. Although they occurred at different points in time, examples of early sedentary agricultural housing can be found in English cottages, such as the Suffolk, Cornwall, and Kent cottages [ 1 ].
Urbanization Permanent dwellings went beyond simply providing shelter and protection and moved to the consideration of comfort. These structures began to find their way into what is now known as the urban setting. The earliest available evidence suggests that towns came into existence around BC.
Thus began the social and public health problems that would increase as the population of cities increased in number and in sophistication. In preurban housing, the sparse concentration of people allowed for movement away from human pollution or allowed the dilution of pollution at its location. The movement of populations into urban settings placed individuals in close proximity, without the benefit of previous linkages what is the primary purpose of household services without the ability to relocate away from pollution or other people.
Urbanization was relatively slow to begin, but once started, it accelerated rapidly. This was soon to change. The year saw the percentage increase to In the Western world, one of the primary forces driving urbanization was the Industrial Revolution. The basic source of energy in the earliest phase of the Industrial Revolution was water provided by flowing rivers. Therefore, towns and cities grew next to the great waterways. Factory buildings were of wood and stone and matched the houses in which the workers lived, both in construction and in location.
However, living close to the workplace was a definite advantage for the worker of the time. When the power source for factories changed from water to coal, steam became the driver and the construction materials became brick and cast iron, which later evolved into steel. Increasing populations in cities and towns increased social problems in overcrowded slums. The lack of inexpensive, rapid public transportation forced many workers to live close to their work. These factory areas were not the pastoral areas with which many were familiar, but were bleak with smoke and other pollutants.
The inhabitants of rural areas migrated to ever-expanding cities looking for work. The cities and towns of England were woefully unprepared to cope with the resulting environmental problems, such as the lack of potable water and insufficient sewerage.
In this atmosphere, cholera was rampant; and death rates resembled those of Third World countries today. Children had a one in six chance of dying before the age of 1 year.
Because of urban housing problems, social reformers such as Edwin Chadwick began to appear. In the United States, Shattuck et al. In the report, 50 recommendations were made.
Among those related to housing and building issues were recommendations for protecting school children by ventilation and sanitation of school buildings, emphasizing town planning and controlling overcrowded tenements and cellar dwellings. Figure 1. InDr. John H. His document expressed once again the argument for housing reform and sanitation.
By the middle of the century, slum had evolved into a term for a back dwelling occupied by the lowest members of society. Von Hoffman [ 6 ] states that this term had, by the end of the century, begun to be used interchangeably with the term tenement. The author noted additionally that in the larger cities of the United States, the apartment house emerged in the what is the primary purpose of household services as a housing unit of two to five stories, with each story containing apartments of two to four rooms.
It was originally built for the upper group of the working class. The tenement house emerged in the s when landlords converted warehouses into inexpensive housing designed to accommodate Irish and black workers.
Additionally, existing large homes were subdivided and new structures were added, creating rear houses and, in what is alt sgpt in a blood test process, eliminating the traditional gardens and yards behind them.
These rear houses, although new, were no healthier than the front house, often housing up to 10 families. When this strategy became inadequate to satisfy demand, the epoch period how to get cbse class 10 results by sms the tenements began.
Although unpopular, the tenement house grew in numbers, and, by in New York and Boston, each tenement housed an average of 65 people. During the s, the railroad house or railroad tenement was introduced. This structure was a solid, rectangular block with a narrow alley in the back.
The structure was typically 90 feet long and had 12 to 16 rooms, each about 6 feet by 6 feet and holding around four people. The facility allowed no direct light or air into rooms except those facing the street or alley. Further complicating this structure was the lack of privacy for the tenants. A lack of hallways eliminated any semblance of privacy. Open sewers, a single privy in the back of the building, and uncollected garbage resulted in an objectionable and unhygienic place to live.
Additionally, the wood construction common at the time, coupled with coal and wood heating, made fire an ever-present danger. As a result of a series of tenement fires in in New York, such terms as death-trap and fire-trap were coined to describe the poorly constructed living facilities [ 6 ].
The two last decades of the 19th century saw the introduction and development of dumbbell tenements, a front and rear tenement connected by a long hall. These tenements were typically five stories, with a basement and no elevator elevators were not required for any building of less than six stories. Dumbbell tenements, like other tenements, resulted in unaesthetic and unhealthy places to live.
Garbage was often thrown down the airshafts, natural light was confined to the first floor hallway and the public hallways only contained one or two toilets and a sink. This apparent lack of sanitary facilities was compounded by the fact that many families took in boarders to help with expenses.
In fact, 44, families rented space to boarders in New York inwith this increasing tofamilies in The passage of the New York Tenement House Act of spelled the end of the dumbbells and acceptance of a new tenement type developed in the s—the park or central court tenement, which was distinguished by a park or open space in the middle of a group of buildings.
This design was implemented to reduce the activity on the front street and to enhance the opportunity for fresh air and recreation in the courtyard. The design often included roof playgrounds, kindergartens, communal laundries, and stairways on the courtyard side. Although the tenements did not go away, reform groups supported ideas such as suburban cottages to be developed for the working class.
Apple Health Eligibility Manual
Tax filer + spouse + tax dependents = household. Follow these basic rules when including members of your household: Include your spouse if you’re legally married. If you plan to claim someone as a tax dependent for the year you want coverage, do include them on your application. If you won’t claim them as a tax dependent, don’t include them. April 27, Purpose: To explain the rules and worker responsibilities regarding the establishment of medical assistance units (MAU), for one or more family members whose eligibility for health care coverage is determined separately or together based on type of Apple Health program, relationship, and financial responsibility. providing services in primary health care the burden on individuals, families and society will be reduced, household productivity and social integration will be maintained, resulting in better chances of recovery. 4 Human Rights Protection Providing treatment at primary health care, backed by secondary health.
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CPSC is committed to protecting consumers and families from products that pose a fire, electrical, chemical, or mechanical hazard. CPSC's work to ensure the safety of consumer products - such as toys, cribs, power tools, cigarette lighters, and household chemicals - contributed to a decline in the rate of deaths and injuries associated with consumer products over the past 40 years. General Information and Frequently Asked Questions.
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